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Patricia A. Young Ph.D.

Department of Education

University of Maryland Baltimore County

Winner of the 2021 Outstanding Publication Award for a Book: Culture, Learning and Technology Division, Association for Educational Communications & Technology


Book Title: Human Specialization in Design & Technology: The Current Wave for Learning, Culture, Industry & Beyond

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An educational technologist, professor, researcher and software developer, Dr. Young examines culture as a design construct in the development of culture-based information and communication technologies. She also investigates the history of educational technologies designed by and for African Americans.


Dr. Young is the 2023 recipient of Indiana University Bloomington’s School of Education Dean’s Medallion that is a lifetime achievement award given to individuals who have demonstrated an unwavering commitment and distinguished contributions to the betterment of society through education. Honorees’ work must represent extraordinary standards of excellence as evidenced by scholarship or creative activity; professional achievement; or public service.


​Dr. Young’s expertise in Culture and Instructional Design & Technology sets her research contributions apart, and 65% of her publications are single-authored, focusing on the highest impact. She has also published in formative books such as the Handbook of Research on New Literacies (Routledge) and the Handbook of Research on Educational Communications & Technology (Springer).


Dr. Young’s latest book, Human Specialization in Design & Technology: The Current Wave for Learning, Culture, Industry and Beyond (2021), provides cutting edge research and commentary on the future of design and technology across business and industry and PreK-college systems of education.​


Dr. Young developed the Culture Based Model, a novel framework for building culture-based information and communication technologies. She has documented her model in several articles, and in her book Instructional Design Frameworks & Intercultural Models (Information Science Reference, 2009).


Dr. Young is the first woman and African American to serve as an editor on the internationally ranked journal Educational Technology Research and Development. Her contributions to the journal are chronicled in the upcoming book AECT at 100: A Legacy of Leadership by Miller et al (expected August 2023).


Dr. Young’s seminal article Integrating Culture in the Design of ICTs propelled her research into the spotlight. This article won the 2009 “Outstanding Journal Article” award from the Design & Development Division of the Association for Educational Communications & Technology. She is also the recipient of numerous service awards.


​More than an educational theorist, Dr. Patricia A. Young is also a practitioner. Her work as an educational technologist evolved from her B.F.A at New York Institute of Technology in television and film production. Later as a classroom teacher, she taught at both the primary (kindergarten and second grade) and collegiate level. Her range of college teaching beyond UMBC includes education departments at Howard University, California State University Fullerton and Henan University in Kaifeng, China. Honing her media experience and literacy education, her doctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley focused on African American contributions to the field of educational technology, a research interest she continues to this day. Dr. Young has combined her theoretical expertise and real-world experience, publishing numerous refereed articles in journals such as Artificial Intelligence and Society; British Journal of Educational Technology; Journal of Educational Technology & Society; Journal of Language, Identity and Education; Race, Ethnicity & Education; and the Journal of African American Studies.


​Dr. Young built an original learning analytics software program, Proticy, to improve teaching and learning in higher education. She works towards refining this prototype software.

Dr. Young continues to forge new trails for research, teaching and serving humanity.

Leroy Raadel Posey

Abstract to Article:

M³: Leroy Raadel Posey An African American Inventor of a Mathematics Teaching Machine


Evidence of African American cultural ingenuity can be found throughout history. This article chronicles the little known history of Leroy Raadel Posey an African American inventor of a mathematics teaching machine—the Combination Slide Board. Through a historical examination of primary source documents, the man behind the machine is revealed as a mathematics educator whose life’s work focused on providing access to the mysteries behind mathematics. The patent of the educational device details the purpose of

the Combination Slide Board as a teaching machine and calculating device. Finally, an examination of Posey’s research and publications expose his innovations in the emerging field of mathematics education. This analysis reveals the journey of the man, machine and mathematics and the creation of the Combination Slide Board as a 19th century teaching machine.

Human Specialization in Design and Techn

Published 2021


Human Specialization in Design and Technology:

The Current Wave for Learning, Culture, Industry and Beyond


We are living in an age that without the human ingenuity to innovate we will cease to exist. Human Specialization exemplifies the natural, but inevitable, evolution to innovate specifically for human needs and conditions. This cultural phenomenon is being enacted across business, manufacturing, science, technology and education industries through trends such as standardization, customization, personalization and specialization. This text grounds its development in the field of Educational Technology to disclose the intricacies of human innovation or lack thereof. Section 1 explores the what and how of human innovation looking broadly across industries, the history of personalization, and COVID-19. Section 2 provides narratives on the current state of Educational Technology and forecasts future outcomes. Some of the topics include: The future professor, public schools, equity & access, XR Technologies, Open Educational Resources and more. The book concludes with solutions and a path forward through human specialization. 

Updated 4/9/2024

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